✨ A magical persistence library (and so much more) for state-driven iOS and Mac apps ✨

What's New

Version 2.0: Bring Your Own Database And So Much More


This update's a big one!

This version update isn't just one version update, it's two. Boutique's 2.0 depends on Bodega version 2.0, which is a huge update in its own right. Boutique's Bring Your Own Database feature is powered by Bodega, which means you get all of the functionality with no API changes to Boutique. And of course it's still only a couple of lines of code to have an app with a single source of truth, realtime updates, the offline support you've come to know and love, now 5-10x faster out of the box.

This version contains breaking changes

@StoredValue & AsyncStoredValue

Most data your app works with is in the shape of an array, but sometimes you need to store a single value. That's what @StoredValue is for. As the name implies @StoredValue allows you to store a value, which is great for saving user preferences, configurations, or even individual value like lastOpenedDate. AsyncStoredValue has the exact same API, but allows you to bring your own StorageEngine rather than depending on UserDefaults under the hood.

Creating a @StoredValue is easy, it even supports default values like you would expect with any other Swift property.

@StoredValue(key: "pandaRojo")
private var spanishRedPanda = RedPanda(cuteRating: 100)

A more complex example may look like this, for example if you were building a Youtube-like video app.

struct UserPreferences: Codable, Equatable {
    var hasProvidedNotificationsAccess: Bool
    var hasHapticsEnabled: Bool
    var prefersDarkMode: Bool
    var prefersWideScreenVideos: Bool
    var spatialAudioEnabled: Bool

struct UserPreferences: Codable, Equatable {
    var hasProvidedNotificationsAccess: Bool
    var hasHapticsEnabled: Bool
    var prefersDarkMode: Bool
    var prefersWideScreenVideos: Bool
    var spatialAudioEnabled: Bool

struct LikedVideos: Codable, Equatable {
    let ids: [Int]

struct DownloadedVideos: Codable, Equatable {
    let ids: [Int]

struct AppState {

    @StoredValue<UserPreferences>(key: "userPreferences")
    var preferences = UserPreferences()

    @StoredValue(key: "likedEpisodes")
    var likedVideos = LikedVideos(ids: [1, 2, 3])

    @StoredValue<DownloadedVideos>(key: "downloadedVideos")
    var downloadedVideos = DownloadedVideos(ids: [])

    @StoredValue(key: "openLinksInSafari")
    var openLinksInSafari = true


Thank you to @IanKeen for helping me build @StoredValue and @AsyncStoredValue, and working through some nuances as the final version took shape.

AppKit/UIKit support

This one does what it says on the tin, Boutique is no longer constrained to SwiftUI. @Stored and the new @StoredValue/@AsyncStoredValue will work in UIKit and AppKit apps!

Chained Operations

This is a breaking change, but a very worthwhile one. Previously when you added an item there was an removingExistingItems parameter that would provide a form of cache invalidation. But as they say, the two hardest problems in computer science are naming, cache invalidation, and off by one errors, so let's fix all three in one fell swoop.

What used to look like this

public func add(_ item: Item, removingExistingItems existingItemsStrategy: ItemRemovalStrategy<Item>? = nil) async throws

Now becomes much simpler

public func add(_ item: Item) async throws -> Operation

The reason for the removingExistingItems parameter was to remove cached items and add new items in one operation, preventing multiple dispatches to the @MainActor. We wanted to avoid multiple dispatches to avoid multiple SwiftUI render cycles, and now we can avoid that thanks to Operation chaining. But what is Operation? An Operation is a type you never have to think about, but it allows us to chain commands together transparently, like this.
    .add(items: [1, 2, 3])
// The Store now contains [1, 2, 3]
    .add(items: [4, 5, 6])
// The Store now contains [2, 3, 4, 5, 6]

This fluent syntax is much more intuitive, and allows us to remove the confusing removingItems parameter from .add(items: [Item], removingItems: ItemRemovalStrategy). Previously adding items and cache invalidation were conflated, thanks to some type system fun we were able to improve this syntax, without SwiftUI rendering issues.

Thank you to @davedelong for helping me think through and prototyping chained operations, I really appreciate what came to be and wouldn't have gotten there without his help.


Previously the default folder location a Store was initialized was the Documents directory. This makes sense on iOS, tvOS, and more locked down platforms, but on macOS it makes more sense to store data in the Application Support folder. Support for defaultStorageDirectory comes from Bodega, but if you're initializing a Boutique Store the location will now default to the expected folder on each platform.

Bring Your Own Database

In the Version 1.x series of Bodega the DiskStorage type was responsible for persisting data to disk. As the name implies DiskStorage was backed by the file system, but what if you don't want to save Data to disk? Saving data to disk is a simple and effective starting point, but can get slow when working with large data sets. One of Bodega's goals is to work with every app without causing developers to make tradeoffs, so version 2.0 is focused on eliminating those tradeoffs without ruining the streamlined simplicity Bodega brings, and brings that to Boutique.

In the spirit of not making tradeoffs here's how Bodega works with any database you want, say hello to the new StorageEngine protocol.

public protocol StorageEngine: Actor {
    func write(_ data: Data, key: CacheKey) async throws
    func write(_ dataAndKeys: [(key: CacheKey, data: Data)]) async throws

    func read(key: CacheKey) async -> Data?
    func read(keys: [CacheKey]) async -> [Data]
    func readDataAndKeys(keys: [CacheKey]) async -> [(key: CacheKey, data: Data)]
    func readAllData() async -> [Data]
    func readAllDataAndKeys() async -> [(key: CacheKey, data: Data)]

    func remove(key: CacheKey) async throws
    func remove(keys: [CacheKey]) async throws
    func removeAllData() async throws

    func keyExists(_ key: CacheKey) async -> Bool
    func keyCount() async -> Int
    func allKeys() async -> [CacheKey]

    func createdAt(key: CacheKey) async -> Date?
    func updatedAt(key: CacheKey) async -> Date?

By providing your own write, read, remove, key, and timestamp related functions, you can make any persistence layer compatible with ObjectStorage. Whether your app is backed by Realm, Core Data, or even CloudKit, when you create a new StorageEngine it automatically becomes usable by Boutique's Store, no new APIs to learn.

The first StorageEngine to be implemented is an SQLiteStorageEngine, bundled with Bodega. I'll explain all the possibilities below, but first let's take a second to see how much faster your apps using Bodega and Boutique will be.

StorageEngine Read Performance
StorageEngine Write Performance

If it's not obvious, a SQLite foundation for Bodega is tremendously faster than using the file system as we did in Boutique v1. The DiskStorageStorageEngine is still available, but if you use the SQLiteStorageEngine loading 10,000 objects into memory will be more than 400% faster, and writing 5,000 objects is more than 500% faster. With this release I feel confident that you should be able to use Bodega and Boutique in the largest of apps, while counterintuitively becoming a more flexible framework.


Now that you can provide a StorageEngine the Store initializer goes from this

let animalsStore = Store<Animal>(
    storagePath: Store<Animal>.documentsDirectory(appendingPath: "Animals"),
    cacheIdentifier: \.id

To this

let animalsStore = Store<Animal>(
    storage: SQLiteStorageEngine(directory: .defaultStorageDirectory(appendingPath: "Animals")),
    cacheIdentifier: \.id

Or even simpler if you use the new default SQLiteStorageEngine in the default Data database.

let animalsStore = Store<Animal>(cacheIdentifier: \.id)

For a backwards compatible StorageEngine you can use the new DiskStorageEngine, which was powering your data in v1.

let animalsStore = Store<Animal>(
    storage: DiskStorageEngine(directory: .defaultStorageDirectory(appendingPath: "Animals")),
    cacheIdentifier: \.id

You can find Boutique's documentation here, including a lot of updates for the v2 release. The demo app has been updated to account for the API updates, and now there's a Performance Profiler app to help you build custom a StorageEngine.

P.S. If you build something useful to others, by all means file a pull request so I can add it to Boutique!

Boutique Logo

A simple but surprisingly fancy data store and so much more

"I ripped out Core Data, this is the way it should work"

Josh Holtz

"Boutique is ridiculously easy to implement and makes persistence a breeze. It's become my first addition to every project I start.

Tyler Hillsman

"Boutique has become invaluable, I use it in every side project now. Not having to care about persistence is great and the cost of getting started is practically zero."

Romain Pouclet

If you find Boutique valuable I would really appreciate it if you would consider helping sponsor my open source work, so I can continue to work on projects like Boutique to help developers like yourself.

Boutique is a simple but powerful persistence library, a small set of property wrappers and types that enable building incredibly simple state-driven apps for SwiftUI, UIKit, and AppKit. With its dual-layered memory + disk caching architecture Boutique provides a way to build apps that update in real time with full offline storage in only a few lines of code using an incredibly simple API. Boutique is built atop Bodega, and you can find a demo app built atop the Model View Controller Store architecture in this repo which shows you how to make an offline-ready SwiftUI app in only a few lines of code. You can read more about the thinking behind the architecture in this blog post exploring the MVCS architecture.

Getting Started

Boutique only has one concept you need to understand. When you save data to the Store your data will be persisted automatically for you and exposed as a regular Swift array. The @StoredValue and @AsyncStoredValue property wrappers work the same way, but instead of an array they work with singular Swift values. You'll never have to think about databases, everything in your app is a regular Swift array or value using your app's models, with straightforward code that looks like any other app.

You may be familiar with the Store from Redux or The Composable Architecture, but unlike those frameworks you won't need to worry about adding Actions or Reducers. With this Store implementation all your data is persisted for you automatically, no additional code required. This allows you to build realtime updating apps with full offline support in an incredibly simple and straightforward manner.

You can read a high level overview of Boutique below, but Boutique is also fully documented here.


We'll go through a high level overview of the Store below, but the Store is fully documented with context, use cases, and examples here.

The entire surface area of the API for achieving full offline support and realtime model updates across your entire app is three methods, .add(), .remove(), and .removeAll().

// Create a Store ¹
let store = Store<Animal>(
    storage: SQLiteStorageEngine.default(appendingPath: "Animals"),
    cacheIdentifier: \.id

// Add an item to the Store ²
let redPanda = Animal(id: "red_panda")
try await store.add(redPanda)

// Remove an animal from the Store
try await store.remove(redPanda)

// Add two more animals to the Store
let dog = Item(name: "dog")
let cat = Item(name: "cat")
try await store.add([dog, cat])

// You can read items directly
print(store.items) // Prints [dog, cat]

// Clear your store by removing all the items at once.

print(store.items) // Prints []

// You can even chain commands together
try await store
print(store.items) // Prints [dog, cat]

// This is a good way to clear stale cached data
try await store

print(store.items) // Prints [redPanda]

And if you're building a SwiftUI app you don't have to change a thing, Boutique was made for and with SwiftUI in mind. (But works well in UIKit and AppKit of course. 😉)

// Since items is a @Published property 
// you can subscribe to any changes in realtime.
store.$items.sink({ items in
    print("Items was updated", items)

// Works great with SwiftUI out the box for more complex pipelines.
.onReceive(store.$items, perform: {
    self.allItems = $0.filter({ $ > 100 })

¹ You can have as many or as few Stores as you'd like. It may be a good strategy to have one Store for all of the images you download in your app, but you may also want to have one Store per model-type you'd like to cache. You can even create separate stores for tests, Boutique isn't prescriptive and the choice for how you'd like to model your data is yours. You'll also notice, that's a concept from Bodega which you can read about in Bodega's StorageEngine documentation.

² Under the hood the Store is doing the work of saving all changes to disk when you add or remove items.

³ In SwiftUI you can even power your Views with $items and use .onReceive() to update and manipulate data published by the Store's $items.

Warning Storing images or other binary data in Boutique is technically supported but not recommended. The reason is that storing images in Boutique's can balloon up the in-memory store, and your app's memory as a result. For similar reasons as it's not recommended to store images or binary blobs in a database, it's not recommended to store images or binary blobs in Boutique.

The Magic of @Stored

We'll go through a high level overview of the @Stored property wrapper below, but @Stored is fully documented with context, use cases, and examples here.

That was easy, but I want to show you something that makes Boutique feel downright magical. The Store is a simple way to gain the benefits of offline storage and realtime updates, but by using the @Stored property wrapper we can cache any property in-memory and on disk with just one line of code.

extension Store where Item == RemoteImage {

    // Initialize a Store to save our images into
    static let imagesStore = Store<RemoteImage>(
        storage: SQLiteStorageEngine.default(appendingPath: "Images")


final class ImagesController: ObservableObject {

    /// Creates a @Stored property to handle an in-memory and on-disk cache of images. ⁴
    @Stored(in: .imagesStore) var images

    /// Fetches `RemoteImage` from the API, providing the user with a red panda if the request succeeds.
    func fetchImage() async throws -> RemoteImage {
        // Hit the API that provides you a random image's metadata
        let imageURL = URL(string: "")!
        let randomImageRequest = URLRequest(url: imageURL)
        let (imageResponse, _) = try await randomImageRequest)

        return RemoteImage(createdAt: .now, url: imageResponse.url, width: imageResponse.width, height: imageResponse.height, imageData: imageResponse.imageData)
    /// Saves an image to the `Store` in memory and on disk.
    func saveImage(image: RemoteImage) async throws {
        try await self.$images.add(image)
    /// Removes one image from the `Store` in memory and on disk.
    func removeImage(image: RemoteImage) async throws {
        try await self.$images.remove(image)
    /// Removes all of the images from the `Store` in memory and on disk.
    func clearAllImages() async throws {
        try await self.$images.removeAll()


That's it, that's really it. This technique scales very well, and sharing this data across many views is exactly how Boutique scales from simple to complex apps without adding API complexity. It's hard to believe that now your app can update its state in real time with full offline storage thanks to only one line of code. @Stored(in: .imagesStore) var images

⁴ (If you'd prefer to decouple the store from your view model, controller, or manager object, you can inject stores into the object like this.)

final class ImagesController: ObservableObject {

    @Stored var images: [RemoteImage]

    init(store: Store<RemoteImage>) {
        self._images = Stored(in: store)


StoredValue & AsyncStoredValue

We'll go through a high level overview of the @StoredValue and @AsyncStoredValue property wrappers below, but they're fully documented with context, use cases, and examples here.

The Store and @Stored were created to store an array of data because most data apps render comes in the form of an array. But occasionally we need to store an individual value, that's where @StoredValue and @AsyncStoredValue come in handy.

Whether you need to save an important piece of information for the next time your app is launched or if want to change how an app looks based on a user's settings, those app configurations are individual values that you'll want to persist.

Often times people will choose to store individual items like that in UserDefaults. If you've used @AppStorage then @StoredValue will feel right at home, it has a very similar API with some additional features. A @StoredValue will end up being stored in UserDefaults, but it also exposes a publisher so you can easily subscribe to changes.

// Setup a `@StoredValue, @AsyncStoredValue has the same API.
@StoredValue(key: "hasHapticsEnabled")
var hasHapticsEnabled = false

// You can also store nil values
@StoredValue(key: "lastOpenedDate")
var lastOpenedDate: Date? = nil

// Enums work as well, as long as it conforms to `Codable` and `Equatable`.
@StoredValue(key: "currentTheme")
var currentlySelectedTheme = .light

// Complex objects work as well
struct UserPreferences: Codable, Equatable {
    var hasHapticsEnabled: Bool
    var prefersDarkMode: Bool
    var prefersWideScreen: Bool
    var spatialAudioEnabled: Bool

@StoredValue(key: "userPreferences")
var preferences = UserPreferences()

// Set the lastOpenedDate to now

// currentlySelected is now .dark

// StoredValues that are backed by a boolean also have a toggle() function

An @AsyncStoredValue is very similar to @StoredValue, the main difference is that rather than storing individual values in UserDefaults an @AsyncStoredValue is stored in a StorageEngine, much like a Store. This allows you to build your own custom persistence layer for storing values, such as building a KeychainStorageEngine to store individual values in the keychain much the same way we can choose our own persistence layer for @Stored.


If you have any questions I would ask that you please look at the documentation first, both Boutique and Bodega are very heavily documented. On top of that Boutique comes with not one but two demo apps, each serving a different purpose but demonstrating how you can build a Boutique-backed app.

As I was building v1 I noticed that people who got Boutique loved it, and people who thought it might be good but had questions grew to love it once they understood how to use it. Because of that I sought out to write a lot of documentation explaining the concepts and common use cases you'll encouter when building an iOS or macOS app. If you still have questions or suggestions I'm very open to feedback, how to contribute is discussed in the aptly named Feedback section of this readme.

Further Exploration

Boutique is very useful on its own for building realtime offline-ready apps with just a few lines of code, but it's even more powerful when you use the Model View Controller Store architecture I've developed, demonstrated in the ImagesController above. MVCS brings together the familiarity and simplicity of the MVC architecture you know and love with the power of a Store, to give your app a simple but well-defined state management and data architecture.

If you'd like to learn more about how it works you can read about the philosophy in a blog post where I explore MVCS for SwiftUI, and you can find a reference implementation of an offline-ready realtime MVCS app powered by Boutique in this repo.

We've only scratched the surface of what Boutique can do here. Leveraging Bodega's StorageEngine you can build complex data pipelines that do everything from caching data to interfacing with your API server. Boutique and Bodega are more than libraries, they're a set of primitives for any data-driven application, so I suggest giving them a shot, playing with the demo app, and even building an app of your own!


This project provides multiple forms of delivering feedback to maintainers.

  • If you have a question about Boutique, we ask that you first consult the documentation to see if your question has been answered there.

  • This project is heavily documented but also includes multiple sample projects.

    • The first app is a Demo app which shows you how to build a canonical Boutique app using the Model View Controller Store pattern. The app is heavily documented with inline explanations to help you build an intuition for how a Boutique app works and save you time by teaching you best practices along the way.
    • The second app is a Performance Profiler also using Boutique's preferred architecture. If you're working on a custom StorageEngine this project will serve you well as a way to test the performance of the operations you need to build.
  • If you still have a question, enhancement, or a way to improve Boutique, this project leverages GitHub's Discussions feature.

  • If you find a bug and wish to report an issue would be appreciated.


  • iOS 13.0+
  • macOS 11.0+
  • Xcode 13.2+


Swift Package Manager

The Swift Package Manager is a tool for automating the distribution of Swift code and is integrated into the Swift build system.

Once you have your Swift package set up, adding Boutique as a dependency is as easy as adding it to the dependencies value of your Package.swift.

dependencies: [
    .package(url: "", .upToNextMajor(from: "1.0.0"))


If you prefer not to use SPM, you can integrate Boutique into your project manually by copying the files in.

About me

Hi, I'm Joe everywhere on the web, but especially on Twitter.


See the license for more information about how you can use Boutique.


Boutique is a labor of love to help developers build better apps, making it easier for you to unlock your creativity and make something amazing for your yourself and your users. If you find Boutique valuable I would really appreciate it if you'd consider helping sponsor my open source work, so I can continue to work on projects like Boutique to help developers like yourself.


  • Swift Tools 5.6.0
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Last updated: Mon Oct 03 2022 16:21:15 GMT-0500 (GMT-05:00)