MuJoCo

0.1.0

Swift Binding for MuJoCo: https://mujoco.org/
liuliu/swift-mujoco

What's New

v0.1.0

2022-06-09T23:40:18Z

Initial release of MuJoCo for Swift.

This release supports majority of MuJoCo APIs in https://mujoco.readthedocs.io/en/latest/overview.html

Currently will stablize with 0.x versions. After both the API translation and usability on macOS / iOS / Linux reach a satisfactory level, the version tag will follow with the MuJoCo release tag.

MuJoCo for Swift

macos-spm macos-bazel ubuntu-spm ubuntu-bazel documentation

This is a Swift binding for MuJoCo physics simulation library.

MuJoCo is a very accurate CPU-based physics simulation library. Since its acquisition by DeepMind, MuJoCo has been more readily available broadly.

MuJoCo is at the heart of physics simulation in the realm of deep reinforcement learning. In OpenAI Gym, there are many diverse environments simulated with MuJoCo.

Up until now, I only dipped a bit into DRL with https://github.com/liuliu/s4nnc/tree/main/examples. OpenAI Gym is OK for these simple mechanisms and I don't mind to wait a few minutes more. But most recently, I grown interests in more serious use of DRL / PPO under Sim2Real banner. For these, it is popular to either use Isaac Gym or exploiting multi-core for environment runs. For later, doing it with multiprocess package of Python is awkward but the preferred way.

If we can run MuJoCo from Swift, we can avoid the trip into Python entirely and simply use DispatchQueue.concurrentPerform for environment runs.

Installation

MuJoCo for Swift can be installed through either Swift Package Manager or Bazel.

Install with Swift Package Manager

You can add MuJoCo for Swift in your project from here:

.package(name: "MuJoCo", url: "https://github.com/liuliu/swift-mujoco.git", from: "0.1.0")

Install with Bazel

You can simply add MuJoCo for Swift as a dependency in WORKSPACE:

git_repository(
    name = "swift-mujoco",
    commit = "a40cf47e238959b1a12d9ec6cf1e1e7f2ab9674a",
    remote = "https://github.com/liuliu/swift-mujoco.git",
    shallow_since = "1654817288 -0400"
)

load("@swift-mujoco//:deps.bzl", "swift_mujoco_deps")

MuJoCo for Swift should work on macOS, Linux and iOS. The GLContext is only available on macOS and Linux.

Automatic Interface Generation

Struct

A mixed strategy was used for MuJoCo interface generation. MuJoCo's API heavily leans towards exposed public C structs. MuJoCo for Swift has to expose these C structs. Wrappers for these C structs are manually created with following principles:

  • If possible, simply typealias to its C struct;
  • If not, refer a public struct with C struct interior, keeping the memory layout exactly the same (can better expose certain properties, more on that later);
  • If there are associated heap data, typically, with mj_deleteXXX methods. These are public struct with a final class Storage interior to track lifetime.

Which out of the three implemented was tracked in Sources/codegen/functionExtension.swift. We later generated Sources/MjObject+Extensions.swift to encode above strategies into Swift protocol. All MjStruct conforms to this protocol which provides associated type of the underlying C struct, as well as the memory access method withCTypeUnsafeMutablePointer(to:).

MuJoCo's C headers are parsed and used to generate properties on structs and functions on structs. These are XX+Extensions.swift and XX+Functions.swift files. All accessors are generated for public C structs from MuJoCo.

They can be reproduced with:

bazel run Sources:codegen -- ~/workspace/swift-mujoco/Sources/ ~/workspace/mujoco/include/mujoco/*.h

Extra care was taken to make sure comments are properly parsed and added to these extensions. https://liuliu.github.io/swift-mujoco is the documentation generated based on these comments.

MjArray<T> is the array type that exposes static or dynamic arrays within a C struct. It retains the underlying storage to make sure the access is safe. It also conforms to set of protocols such that for inout parameters and other array parameters, you can either pass vanilla array or MjArray<T> (or MjTuple, through .tuple()) and expect it just works.

Enum

enum are parsed and generated in Mjt.swift file. Because there is no type annotation, we do our best to infer which int type are enums from comment. MjtEnableBit, MjtDisableBit, MjtCatBit and MjtPertBit are special handled to be OptionSet.

Functions

C functions are not scoped to a particular object. We have to infer these. First, we try to infer which group of APIs it belongs to with the prefix: mj_ matches mjXX structs, mjv_ matches mjvXX structs. We prefer the first parameter, otherwise the last parameter (as it is often used as write to). If no suitable object to be found, it is a free function.

The interface generation process also treats const annotation seriously. Without const, these methods are annotated with mutating. If the parameter is a pointer without const, it is annotated with inout.

Not all functions are automatically generated, some of these are manually implemented because:

  • The C API can be better refactored to Swift API. For example, mj_loadXML can be better translated with throws for errors;
  • Some parameters can be nil, but during automatic interface generation, we assumed all parameters to be non-nil.

MjUI

Whenever possible, we lean towards automatic interface generation. That's why we kept certain APIs in a way that look weird. MjUI has many quirks that at odds with this philosophy. In particular, MjuiDef automatically associated the UI control with the underlying storage pdata. Because pdata is a pointer, it has no regards to the underlying storage lifetime. A set of property wrappers: MjuiDefState, MjuiDefStateMap are introduced to solve this issue. Although users are still responsible to make sure the underlying storage lifetime longer than MjUI itself, you don't need to deal with raw pdata. A MjuiDefObjectMapper is introduced to facilitate direct mapping between an MjStruct and a MjuiDef. You need to pay extra attention because there is no guarantee on underlying MjStruct lifetime with MjuiDefObjectMapper. A recommended way is to group them both under a final class to make sure their lifetime is in sync.

Constants

Only constants related to MjUI are ported over so far.

Callbacks

Callbacks can be found under Mjcb. These are manually ported callbacks but does support Swift closures (i.e. captures).

Reflection

CustomReflectable protocol conformance is implemented for MjStruct. These should contain all the fields in C structs with very few exceptions (buffer and stack in MjData, buffer in MjModel and userdata in MjUI).

String

MuJoCo leans heavily on static allocated strings. To make interaction easier, these are exposed as ordinary Swift strings. The back-and-forth copying can be expensive. Because static allocated strings have hard limit, there is a silent truncation if such limit reached.

GLContext

A GLContext object is introduced to delegate GLFW interactions. Functionalities from uitools.cc in ./sample/ of MuJoCo were added to make interactions with MjUI easier. This object is a bit overreaching as it provides access to clipboard, timing and drag & drop functions.

Examples

Both Examples/simulate and Examples/ant should provide good starting points to learn about the APIs. To run:

bazel run Examples:ant
bazel run --compilation_mode=opt Examples:simulate -- ~/workspace/swift-mujoco/Examples/assets/ant.xml

Visit documentation at: https://liuliu.github.io/swift-mujoco. These should be kept up-to-date with main branch.

Appendix

List of Supported MuJoCo C APIs

mj_defaultVFS
mj_addFileVFS
mj_makeEmptyFileVFS
mj_findFileVFS
mj_deleteFileVFS
mj_deleteVFS
mj_loadXML
mj_defaultLROpt
mj_defaultSolRefImp
mj_defaultOption
mj_defaultVisual
mj_loadModel
mj_deleteModel
mj_makeData
mj_deleteData
mjv_defaultCamera
mjv_defaultPerturb
mjv_defaultOption
mjv_defaultFigure
mjv_defaultScene
mjv_updateScene
mjv_freeScene
mjr_defaultContext
mjr_freeContext
mjui_themeSpacing
mjui_themeColor
mjui_add
mjui_addToSection
mjui_event
mjr_readPixels
mjr_drawPixels
mj_setLengthRange
mjr_findRect
mj_copyModel
mj_saveModel
mj_sizeModel
mj_copyData
mj_stackAlloc
mj_saveLastXML
mj_freeLastXML
mj_printSchema
mj_step
mj_step1
mj_step2
mj_forward
mj_inverse
mj_forwardSkip
mj_inverseSkip
mj_resetData
mj_resetDataDebug
mj_resetDataKeyframe
mj_setConst
mj_printFormattedModel
mj_printModel
mj_printFormattedData
mj_printData
mju_printMat
mju_printMatSparse
mj_fwdPosition
mj_fwdVelocity
mj_fwdActuation
mj_fwdAcceleration
mj_fwdConstraint
mj_Euler
mj_RungeKutta
mj_invPosition
mj_invVelocity
mj_invConstraint
mj_compareFwdInv
mj_sensorPos
mj_sensorVel
mj_sensorAcc
mj_energyPos
mj_energyVel
mj_checkPos
mj_checkVel
mj_checkAcc
mj_kinematics
mj_comPos
mj_camlight
mj_tendon
mj_transmission
mj_crb
mj_factorM
mj_solveM
mj_solveM2
mj_comVel
mj_passive
mj_subtreeVel
mj_rne
mj_rnePostConstraint
mj_collision
mj_makeConstraint
mj_projectConstraint
mj_referenceConstraint
mj_constraintUpdate
mj_addContact
mj_isPyramidal
mj_isSparse
mj_isDual
mj_mulJacVec
mj_mulJacTVec
mj_jac
mj_jacBody
mj_jacBodyCom
mj_jacGeom
mj_jacSite
mj_jacPointAxis
mj_name2id
mj_id2name
mj_fullM
mj_mulM
mj_mulM2
mj_addM
mj_applyFT
mj_objectVelocity
mj_objectAcceleration
mj_contactForce
mj_differentiatePos
mj_integratePos
mj_normalizeQuat
mj_local2Global
mj_getTotalmass
mj_setTotalmass
mj_version
mj_versionString
mj_ray
mj_rayHfield
mj_rayMesh
mju_rayGeom
mju_raySkin
mjv_room2model
mjv_model2room
mjv_cameraInModel
mjv_cameraInRoom
mjv_frustumHeight
mjv_alignToCamera
mjv_moveCamera
mjv_movePerturb
mjv_moveModel
mjv_initPerturb
mjv_applyPerturbPose
mjv_applyPerturbForce
mjv_averageCamera
mjv_select
mjv_initGeom
mjv_makeConnector
mjv_makeScene
mjv_addGeoms
mjv_makeLights
mjv_updateCamera
mjv_updateSkin
mjr_makeContext
mjr_changeFont
mjr_addAux
mjr_uploadTexture
mjr_uploadMesh
mjr_uploadHField
mjr_restoreBuffer
mjr_setBuffer
mjr_blitBuffer
mjr_setAux
mjr_blitAux
mjr_text
mjr_overlay
mjr_maxViewport
mjr_rectangle
mjr_label
mjr_figure
mjr_render
mjui_resize
mjui_update
mjui_render
mju_error
mju_error_i
mju_error_s
mju_warning
mju_warning_i
mju_warning_s
mju_clearHandlers
mj_warning
mju_writeLog
mju_type2Str
mju_warningText

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Last updated: Tue Jun 28 2022 12:38:43 GMT-0500 (GMT-05:00)